This page lists references on kanji which may be useful in creating or checking the data.

Works on KanjiVG

Apel, Ulrich, and Quint, Julien (2004): Building a Graphetic Dictionary for Japanese Kanji – Character Look Up Based on Brush Strokes or Stroke Groups, and the Display of Kanji as Path Data. In: Zock, Michael, and Saint Dizier, Patrick: Proceeding of the Workshop on Enhancing and Using Electronic Dictionaries, Coling 2004, Geneva; pp. 36–39. Download PDF

References used by the KanjiVG creators

The following references were used by the original KanjiVG authors to form the data.

DFKyoKaSho-W3-MP-RKSJ-H by DynaLab and A-OTF Kyoukasho ICA Pro L by Morisawa and Company Limited were used as model fonts for KanjiVG. The Morisawa font was used, for example, when the DynaLab font was lacking characters.

Hitsujun shidō no tebiki, the official reference of the Ministry for Education (Monbushō), published by Hakubundō, Tokyo in 1958, was used as reference for the stroke order of the Kyōiku Kanji. Download PDF

Kaigyōsō – Hitsujun jitai jiten (楷行草 筆順・字体字典), Emori Kenji (江守 賢治) (ed.), Tokyo. author EMORI, Kenji, published in 2003 by Sanseidō (三省堂), Tokyo was used as reference for the kaisho characters.

Kanjidic, an electronic kanji dictionary. The documentation is found at KANJIDIC Project at

Unicode references

These are documents from the Unicode consortium on their standard.

Other references

  • The JIS Kanji Jiten (JIS 漢字字典) is the kanji dictionary of the Japanese Standards Association. This kanji dictionary is regarded as authoritative on kanji radicals by Jim Breen, the author of Kanjidic, upon which KanjiVG was originally based, thus the radicals given in this reference are used in Kanjidic as the "traditional" radical, which sometimes diverge from the radical used by this project as general or tradit.
  • The Modern Reader's Japanese-English Character Dictionary by Andrew N. Nelson, published in 1962 is the original source for the Nelson radicals used by Jim Breen's Kanjidic.